Uncle Owen: I suppose you’re programmed for etiquette and protocol.
C-3PO: Protocol? It’s my primary function, sir. I am well-versed in all the customs…
Uncle Owen: I have no need for a protocol droid.

– Star Wars

For many Elixir developers, protocols evince in us the same response and attitude as Uncle Owen gives C-3PO in the exchange above. We’ve read about protocols, we kind of understand what they are and how they’re used, but we’ve never explored them beyond the surface, because we’re more focused on getting work done. There’s another name for the word, “surface”: “boundary”. A boundary is something which stops us, limits us, or holds us back.

My guess is you’re not someone who likes boundaries, and I bet it bothers you knowing that protocols are an area in Elixir you don’t have nailed down yet. We’re going to change that. By the end of this article, you’ll understand what protocols are, why you should be using them, how to implement them, and finally, how to create your own.

What Are Elixir Protocols?

The Elixir Guides tell us that, “Protocols are a mechanism to achieve polymorphism in Elixir.” While accurate, the definition seems to have been written by and for someone who already knows what they are. What the definition means is that by implementing functions specific to a protocol, we make sure our structs and built-in data types can take advantage of everything the implemented library has to offer.

Think of it like this, imagine you’ve developed a new type of fastener for joining pieces of wood. If you implement the StandardWrench protocol for your fastener, then you will be able to use standard wrenches and sockets with your new fastener to attach or take apart the wooden objects. If you don’t implement any protocols, then you will need to build your own tools to work with the fastener. In effect, protocols allow us to take advantage of entire toolsets merely by implementing one or more required functions.

We can see how this works in more detail by implementing the Inspect protocol in an example:

defmodule Droid do
  defstruct designation: nil, maker: nil, owner: nil, duties: []

defimpl Inspect, for: Droid do
  def inspect(droid, _opts) do
    Droid Specification:
      Designation: #{droid.designation}
      Maker: #{droid.maker}
      Current Owner: #{droid.owner}
      Duties: #{Enum.join(droid.duties, ", ")}

In this example, we are creating a new struct called, Droid, and then implement the Inspect protocol for it. In so doing, we alter the how Droid responds to functions such as Kernel.inspect/2, IO.inspect/2. In this case, it now prints out the details of a %Droid{} in a nicely formatted manner.

iex> %Droid{designation: "C-3PO", maker: "Anakin Skywalker", owner: "Luke Skywalker", duties: ["Etiquette", "Protocol"] }
Droid Specification:
  Designation: C-3PO
  Maker: Anakin Skywalker
  Current Owner: Luke Skywalker
  Duties: Etiquette, Protocol


The above example serves as a good introduction and how-to for implementing protocols in your own projects. Setting it aside for the moment, let’s turn our attention to why we should use protocols.

3 Reasons You Should Use Protocols

You’ve read this far into the article, which suggests you believe you should be using protocols. Aside from that, what other reasons are there to take advantage of this feature of Elixir?

Reason 1: Protocols are in your toolbox

Imagine a mechanic who refused to use a pneumatic drill, or a tailor who didn’t want to use a sewing machine. Sure they can still get their work done with a tire iron or needle and thread, but are they as productive as they could be?

What about this? What would you think of a woodworker who had her shop filled with every tool she could ever need, but didn’t know how to use a 10% of them? You’d probably doubt her competence.

What then does it say about us when we don’t bother to understand all the tools in our programming toolbox? For that matter, why would we want to limit ourselves to just part of the Elixir toolset?

Reason 2: Protocols are powerups for your modules

I mentioned this earlier, but it bears repeating: protocols allow us to take advantage of toolsets merely by implementing one or more required functions. How’s that for an ROI? By implementing at most 5 functions, you get easier access to the Enum module and it eliminates countless anonymous functions you would otherwise need to write.

Notice, because you’re abstracting that logic out into an implementation, it also makes your code easier to read and understand, providing an “elegant weapon for a more civilized age.”

Reason 3: Protocols simplify the lives of your library users

We are not limited to only those protocols provided in the standard library. On the contrary, we can create protocols for our own libraries. By doing so, it gives your users an easy way to take full advantage of everything your library has to offer. Let’s look at an example.

The authorization library, canada provides a simple solution for role-based authorization. What makes it so simple? All you have to do is implement one function: can?.

Here’s an example of a basic User implementation:

defimpl Canada.Can, for: Droids.User do
  alias Droids.User

  def can?(%User{role: "admin"}, _action, _resource), do: true

  # Active users
  def can?(%User{role: "active"}, :read, :report), do: true
  def can?(%User{role: "active", id: id}, _action, %Droid{user_id: user_id}) do
    id == user_id
  def can?(%User{role: "active"}, :read, %Droid{public: true}), do: true
  def can?(%User{role: "active"}, :read, %Droid{}), do: false

  def can?(%User{role: "active"}, _action, _resource), do: false

Just by implementing this one function for %Droids.User struct, we now have complete control over what our users have access to.

Elixir’s Built In Protocols

Having seen an initial example of implementing a protocol and some reasons for why we should take advantage of them, let’s take a closer look at what we have to work with from the Elixir standard library.


One of my favorite functions in Elixir is Enum.into/2. It enables you do transform one enumerable into another with zero effort. Check this out:

iex> Enum.into([a: 1, b: 2], %{})
%{a: 1, b: 2}

iex> Enum.into(%{a: 1}, %{b: 2})
%{a: 1, b: 2}

iex> Enum.into([a: 1, a: 2], %{})
%{a: 2}

Wouldn’t it be great to take advantage of that in your own modules? You can by implementing Collectable.into/1 in your modules. We’ll see an example of how to do this later in the article.


If you’ve used Elixir, you know the Enum module. For the low, low price of implementing one to four of the Enumerable protocol’s functions, you get full access to not just Enum, but Stream too! How’s that for a bargain.


This protocol will be useful for developers who understand that some of us love working in IEx. By implementing this protocol, you add information to what’s already provided by the i command in IEx.

iex> i "foo"
Data type
Byte size
  This is a string: a UTF-8 encoded binary. It's printed surrounded by
  "double quotes" because all UTF-8 encoded codepoints in it are printable.
Raw representation
  <<102, 111, 111>>
Reference modules
  String, :binary
Implemented protocols
  Collectable, IEx.Info, Inspect, List.Chars, String.Chars

Unfortunately, there’s no documentation on how to implement this protocol, but looking in the elixir-lang’s code, you can see all we need to do is return a list of tuples from IEx.Info.info/1. When we do this, we expand on what’s provided by default.

defimpl IEx.Info, for: Droid do
  def info(droid) do
      {"Duties", Enum.join(droid.duties, ", ")}

In IEx

iex> droid = %Droid{designation: "C-3PO", maker: "Anakin Skywalker", owner: "Luke Skywalker", duties: ["Etiquette", "Protocol"] }


iex> i droid
  Droid Specification:
    Designation: C-3PO
    Maker: Anakin Skywalker
    Current Owner: Luke Skywalker
    Duties: Etiquette, Protocol
  Etiquette, Protocol
Implemented protocols
  IEx.Info, Inspect


As we’ve already seen, implementing the Inspect protocol allows us greater control over how or structs are displayed in both Kernel.inspect/2 and IO.inspect/2.


I have yet to use charlists for anything outside of programming exercises, (which probably means I should write an article about them). But just because I’ve never had a need for them doesn’t mean you don’t. If you would like to use Kernel.to_charlist/1 with your structs, you’ll need to implement List.Chars.to_charlist/1.


When you implement the String.Chars protocol for your structs, you define how you want your structs to be displayed when passed as an argument to Kernel.to_string/1. Elixir’s own URI library implements String.Char to transform a %URI{} to a string.

iex> %URI{
  authority: "samuelmullen.com",
  fragment: nil,
  host: "samuelmullen.com",
  path: "/articles",
  port: 443,
  query: nil,
  scheme: "https",
  userinfo: nil
|> to_string

Implementing Protocols

When we talk about “implementing” a protocol, we don’t mean we are creating a new protocol, but rather taking advantage of an existing protocol. We use the word “implement”, because that’s the macro (defimpl/3) used to state that our struct is using the protocol.

defimpl Inspect, for: Droid do

This statement says that we are implementing the Inspect protocol for our Droid struct. Behind the scenes, it’s adding Droid and the function defined within the do block to the Inspect module.

iex> Inspect.Droid.inspect(%Droid{}, [])

"Droid Specification:\n  Designation: \n  Maker: \n  Current Owner: \n  Duties: \n"

Let’s look at an example of implementing the Collectable protocol – remember, implementing the Collectable protocol allows us to take advantage of Enum.into/2. Since we’ve already defined a %Droid{} struct, it makes sense that we would want to collect our droids somewhere. How about in a Jawa’s sandcrawler?

The first thing to do is define the Sandcrawler. We’ll kept it as simple as possible to avoid distracting from what’s important:

defmodule Sandcrawler do
  defstruct droids: []

In the same file, we’ll add our Collectable implementation:

defimpl Collectable, for: Sandcrawler do
  def into(droids) do
    collector_fun = fn
      sandcrawler, {:cont, elem} ->
        |> Map.put(:droids, [elem|sandcrawler.droids])

      sandcrawler, :done ->

      _sandcrawler, :halt ->

    {droids, collector_fun}

Before explaining what’s going on here, let’s first see how we would use this:

iex> droids = [
  %Droid{designation: "C-3PO", maker: "Anakin Skywalker", owner: "Luke Skywalker"},
  %Droid{designation: "R2-D2", maker: "Unknown" , owner: "Luke Skywalker"}

iex> Enum.into(droids, %Sandcrawler{})

  droids: [
      designation: "R2-D2",
      duties: [],
      maker: "Unknown",
      owner: "Luke Skywalker"
      designation: "C-3PO",
      duties: [],
      maker: "Anakin Skywalker",
      owner: "Luke Skywalker"

Looking back at our implementation, we see it’s returning a tuple of two elements: the original list and a collector function. On each iteration of the enumerable (i.e. the list of droids), the caller passes the “collector function” two arguments: an accumulator and one of three “commands”.

  • :cont :: Runs the collectable function and informs the caller that there are more items to process.
  • :done :: Iteration is complete
  • :halt :: Something bad has happened and you probably need to debug it.

Notice in our implementation we are returning a %Sandcrawler} rather than an Enumerable. In order to pass a %Sandcrawler{} to an Enumerable function, however, we would need to also implement the necessary Enumerable functions. This is a great opportunity to experiment with what you’ve learned so far.

Creating Your Own Protocol

While only providing six protocols, the standard library covers most use cases developers will to run into. Still, as you explore protocols you will become aware of opportunities to create your own. Thankfully, creating your own protocol couldn’t be simpler.

To demonstrate how to do this, we’ll create a new protocol named Emptiness which will by used to show if a type or struct is “empty”.

defprotocol Emptiness do
  @doc "Returns a boolean value based on the 'emptiness' of the term"
  @spec empty?(term) :: boolean()
  def empty?(t)

That’s all there is to it. It would be even simpler if we didn’t include the @doc and @spec lines, but many structs and types will use the protocols you create and you should ensure they are documented and provide the expected inputs and outputs.

Notice that creating a protocol doesn’t add any logic, it’s just a method signature.

With the new protocol defined, we can implement it in our modules:

defimpl Emptiness, for: Droid do
  def empty?(droid) do
    is_nil(droid.designation) &&
      is_nil(droid.maker) &&
      is_nil(droid.owner) &&

defimpl Emptiness, for: Sandcrawler do
  def empty?(sandcrawler) do

And here’s how we might use it:

iex> %Droid{} |> Emptiness.empty?

iex> droid = %Droid{designation: "R2-D2} |> Emptiness.empty?

iex> %Sandcrawler{} |> Emptiness.empty?

iex> %Sandcrawler{droids: [%Droid{designation: "R2-D2"}]} |> Emptiness.empty?

As alluded to already, protocols are not limited to structs you develop. You can implement them for built in types as well.

you can place a protocol’s implementation completely outside the module. This means you can extend modules’ functionality without having to add code to them–in fact, you can extend the functionality even if you don’t have the modules’ source code.”

– Dave Thomas, Programming Elixir

This means “it’s possible to implement protocols for all Elixir data types:” (The Elixir Guides), not just those we create. Here’s how we would implement Emptiness for strings:

defimpl Emptiness, for: BitString do
  def empty?(string) do
    byte_size(string) == 0

When you create your own protocols, consider also which types and structs should implement it. For instance, enumerable types like List, Map, and MapSet are a perfect use cases for the Emptiness protocol, while other types, such as Integer or Atom, will make less sense. In these latter cases, you have a couple choices: allow the type to “error out”, or create a “catch-all” implementation.

If you decide your protocol should be able to handle any type or struct, create an implementation on the Any type like this:

defimpl Emptiness, for: Any do
  def empty?(_), do: "¯\_(ツ)_/¯" # <- KCElixir members will understand

With this implementation, any struct or type passed to the Emptiness.empty?/1 function will at least return something, even if it’s just a shrug.

Don’t be Like Uncle Owen

In the movie, Star Wars, Uncle Owen is depicted as a man of the earth (or rather, Tatooine), focused on the job at hand, with little curiosity or interest in improving his station. He accepted his lot in life and you can be sure that if there was ever a call to adventure, he quickly hung up.

Don’t be like Uncle Owen. Do you have work to do and projects to finish? Of course. But that doesn’t mean you have to learn just enough to do your job; to check off the tasks and check out your mind. While Elixir is still a young language it has a rich ecosystem and a myriad of nooks and crannies to investigate and explore. Protocols are just one of the many areas to explore.

In this article, we’ve looked at what protocols are, three reasons to use them, how to implement, and how to create our own. There is still more to explore and more to learn about them beyond what I’ve written here, but you can only do that by experimenting with them yourself.